NameSlick Tracy Home Team Program and Amazing Alternatives programme (PDD – Program Domowych Detektywów + FM – Fantastyczne Możliwości)
The Polish version of the US Slick Tracy Home Team Program and Amazing Alternatives programme (both belong to the Northland Project) (PDD – Program Domowych Detektywów + FM – Fantastyczne Możliwości).
PDD and FM are universal alcohol prevention programmes to be implemented in the consecutive school years. PDD targets students aged 10-12 years (in Poland they attend 4th or 5th grade of primary school) and FM targets students aged 11-13 years (5th or 6th grade).
Both curricula consist of teacher- and peer-led sessions (in PDD - 5 sessions, based on comic booklets; and in FM - 6, based on audio-taped stories of 4 adolescents) combined with parent-child activities to be undertaken at home.
Elected peer leaders, trained by their teachers, introduce the topic of each session to their classmates, facilitate small-group discussions, problem solving activities, games and role playing.
The activities in the students' booklets are designed to facilitate parent-child communication about alcohol and other substance use and to establish effective family rules to deal with under-age drinking.At the end of the programme, a family evening is organized where pupils present posters to their parents and participate in other fun activities. The entire programme PDD + FM requires two consecutive school years and about 12-15 weeks to complete in each school year.
- National/regional/local government
- most often is funded by local governments
The programme aims to reduce under-age alcohol consumption.Specific objectives are to reduce intention to drink; to strengthen selected protective factors related to alcohol use: social pressure resisting skills, perception of peer norms against drinking and to decrease pro-alcohol attitudes; to facilitate parent-child communication about alcohol and other risky behaviours and to improve student's knowledge (on alcohol advertising and modelling, peer pressure and the consequences of underage alcohol consumption).
- Target group(s)
- Intermediate target group
- Primary school teachers
- Primary schools principals
Scientific: Modelling and strengthening desired child behavior by significant peer and parental involvement are the main prevention strategies utilized in the programme. These strategies are drawn from grounded psychosocial theories: theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), social learning theory (Bandura, 1986) and problem-behaviour theory (Jessor, 1987, 1998).
Elements Of Plan
- Literature review and/or formative research
- Needs assessment
- Detailed plan of action
- Human resource management plan
- Time schedule
- Partners' agreement
- Evaluation plan
- Pre-adolescents and their parents
- Meetings/conferences with experts/colleagues
- Direct communication
- Scientific publications
Careful cultural adaptation of the original US programmes, elaboration of Polish materials, pilot implementation, process evaluation, training sessions, supervisions and published material.
- Team meetings
PDD. The evaluation found that the programme had been fully implemented in all intervention schools. According to self-report data from both students and parents, over 90 % of the students participated in the booklet activities, most frequently with their mothers. Similar rates were identified from the teachers' classroom records. Girls, pupils in two-parent families and ‘good’ students were significantly more likely to complete more booklets. The rate of participation in the family evening was also high, with 74 % of students attending, 56 % with at least one parent.
Teachers were given two alternative methods of selecting peer leaders in the classroom: election from a whole group of students; or election from small, pre-selected groups. Although most of the selections were based on student popularity, group interviews with teachers established that the peer-leader election procedure differed from class to class. Being a peer leader was perceived by students as an honour. In the teachers' opinions, the trained peer leaders were very motivated and fully engaged in the programme activities. Although they experienced some difficulties with discipline during small group activities, they generally performed their tasks well or very well.
FM. Cross-cultural adaptation of the programme consisted of three stages: a) preparation of the preliminary version of educational materials; b) pilot evaluation of the preliminary version of the programme (4 classrooms); and c) pilot study of the programme implementation in eight different communities in Poland (21 classrooms). Qualitative methods were used including focus-group interviews with students, peer leaders and programme delivers, observations of classroom sessions and open-ended questions for students and parents. The results showed that programme required substantial changes to be used in Polish schools. Classroom sessions were reduced from eight to six, and alcohol-related contents were also reduced. The scenarios of the classroom sessions were revised and new content was added to address issues important for teenagers (e.g. relationships with peers, shyness management).
The process evaluation of FM held in Morag (a small town and surrounding villages) as a part of routine implementation found that programme was fully implemented in all eight participating classes (n=139) with high quality of programme delivery. It was evidenced by high rates of family evening participation (over 75 % of students and parents), high rates of parental participation (94 % of parents completed at least half of booklets activities), and high rates of students satisfaction (90 % of students were satisfied).
Outcome evaluationResults of 27 month follow-up outcome evaluation of PDD + FM: beneficial effects of the two-year programme have been identified for the whole group of the intermediating variables (MANOVA, F= 3.64; p<0.001). In particular, significant favourable changes were identified in participants' pro-alcohol attitudes (F=4.12, p<0.043), knowledge about consequences of drinking (F=18.82, p<0.001) and assertiveness beliefs (F=9.89, p<0.002). Other analyses indicated that participation in the two-year programme was associated with less drunkenness and alcohol drinking with peers.
EMCDDA: "Examples of evaluated practices: EDDRA"Article in Psychiatria Polska Bobrowski K. J., Pisarska A., Ostaszewski K., Borucka A. (2014). Skuteczność programu profilaktyki alkoholowej dla dzieci na progu dojrzewania (Effectiveness of alcohol prevention program for pre-adolescents), Psychiatria Polska, 48 (3): 527-539.
27 months after the baseline.
Bobrowski K. (2004) Ocena odroczonych efektów Programu Domowych Detektywów mierzonych po czterech miesiacach od zakonczenia programu (The Slick Tracy Home Detectives Program outcome evaluation – a four-month follow-up), Alkoholizm i Narkomania 18(1-2), 61-76.
Okulicz-Kozaryn K. Bobrowski K., Borucka A., Ostaszewski K., Pisarska A. (2000): Poprawność realizacji Programu Domowych Detektywów a jego skuteczność (Adequacy of the "Program Domowych Detektywów" implementation and its effectiveness). Alkoholizm i Narkomania t. 13(2); 235-254.
Ostaszewski, K., Bobrowski, K., Borucka, A., Okulicz-Kozaryn, K., Pisarska, A., Perry, C., Williams, C. (1998) ‘Program Domowych Detektywów. Adaptacja amerykanskiego programu profilaktyki alkoholowej dla mlodziezy we wczesnym okresie dojrzewania’ (‘A Polish adaptation of the US alcohol primary prevention programme for young adolescents’), Alkoholizm i Narkomania, 3, 339–60.
Ostaszewski K., Bobrowski K., Borucka A., Okulicz-Kozaryn K., Pisarska A. (2000): Ocena skuteczności programu wczesnej profilaktyki alkoholowej "Program Domowych Detektywów" (Outcome evaluation of the alcohol primary prevention programme „Program Domowych Detektywow"). Alkoholizm i Narkomania 13, 1; 83-103.
Ostaszewski K., Bobrowski K, Borucka A., Okulicz-Kozaryn K., Pisarska, A. (2000): Chapter 7. Evaluating innovative drug-prevention programmes: Lessons learned. [in:] Evaluation - a key tool for improving drug prevention. EMCDDA Scientific Monograph Series No 5, European Commission, EMCDDA, 75-85.
Pisarska, A., Ostaszewski, K., Borucka, A., Bobrowski, K., Okulicz-Kozaryn, K. (2005) Adaptacja amerykańskiego programu profilaktyki alkoholowej Fantastyczne Możliwości – znaczenie ewaluacji procesu i badań jakościowych (Cross-cultural adaptation of the Amazing Alternatives – American alcohol prevention programme: the importance of the process evaluation and qualitative methods), Alkoholizm i Narkomania (Alcohol and Drug Abuse), 18, 3, 43-62.
Bobrowski, K., Kocoń, K., Pisarska, A. (2005) Efekty dwuletniego programu profilaktyki alkoholowej. (The results of the two-year alcohol prevention programme) Alkoholizm i Narkomania (Alcohol and Drug Abuse), 18, 3, 25-41
Bobrowski, K. (2006). Zajęcie dla hobbystów – badanie odroczonych efektów programów profilaktycznych. (Hobby activities – analysing the postponed effects of preventive programmes) W: Diagnostyka, profilaktyka i socjoterapia w teorii i praktyce pedagogicznej. Deptuła, M. (red.) Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu im. K. Wielkiego. Bydgoszcz, 221-236.
Contact person: Krzysztof Ostaszewski, PhD
Organization: Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology
Address: Sobieskiego 9, 02-957 Warsaw
Telephone number: +48 22 4582 630
E-mail address: email@example.com